Different Types Of Errors In C

Errors are mistake that we programmer often commit. Errors also called as bugs causes the program to either run unexpectedly ( shows unexpected result ) or prevent the execution of a program. As programmer we are prone to make mistakes. So we should keep in mind the following different types of errors in c which we might commit :

TYPES OF ERRORS

SYNTAX ERROR IN C

  • Syntax Errors are basically compiler errors or compile-time errors which occurs when we do not follow the grammar of the programming language. 
  • It is detected when you compile the program by the compiler.

Syntax Errors occurs : 
  • Due to missing semicolon ( ' ; ' ). It is used as an terminating statement. So when you forget to place a semicolon or use any other alternative then it causes syntax error. 
       #include<stdio.h>
       int main()
       {
         int a=10 // Syntax error as semicolon is missing
         int b=100 : // Syntax error as using ':' instead of ';'
         return 0;
       }
    
  • It occurs when we use a variable which is not declared in program.
  •   #include<stdio.h>
      int main()
      {
         printf("Value of a : %d",a); // error as 'a' is not declared anywhere in program
         return 0;
      }
    
  • Error Occurs due to missing and unmatched parenthesis.
      // Syntax Error as ')' parenthesis is missing
      void sum( 
    
      // Syntax Error as '}' parenthesis is missing
      void product()
      { statement
    
      // Syntax Error due to unmatched parenthesis
      void a{}
    

SEMANTIC ERROR IN C

  • Semantic errors occurs when the statement written in the program are not meaningful to the compiler.
  • Semantic errors indicate an improper use of Java statements.
    Example : int a+b=c; // Semantic Error
    Correct one : int c=a+b;

    int a=+b; // Semantic Error
    Correct one : int a+=b; // Shorthand notation 

LOGICAL ERROR IN C

  • Logical errors are errors that shows unexpected results.
  • It occurs when you write a program that works, but does not do what you intend it to do.
    Example : Suppose you want to find the factorial of a number but instead of multiplying number you end up adding it.
    #include<stdio.h>
     int main()
     {
       int i;
       int factorial=1;
       
       for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
         factorial=factorial+i; // Logical Error. Correct statement : factorial=factorial*i;
    
       return 0;
     }
    

    Though the program would work fine and would not show any syntax or run time error. But the output which you were expecting will not be shown.

LINKER ERROR IN C

  • Linker Errors are errors that occurs when we do not include header files for the predefined functions used in a program and when we  misspell a standard c function.
    #include<stdio.h>
     int Main() // Linker error as 'main' is misspelled as 'Main'
     {
       printf("Hello : ");
       return 0;
     }
    

RUNTIME ERROR IN C

  • Run-time errors are errors that occurs during the execution of the program.
    Example :
    • When we divide a number by zero.
    • When input data is not in the correct format.
    //Runtime error program in c
    #include<stdio.h>
     int main()
     {
       int a=10,b=0,result;
       int number;
    
       result=a/b; // Runtime error
       scanf("%d",&number); // Error occurs when you input some other character instead of 'numbers'
    
       return 0;
     }
    
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